AcquarossaThe excavations at Acquarossa took place between 1966 and 1975, with supplementary compaigns in 1978 and 1991. They were conducted under the auspices of the Swedish Institute in Rome, in association with the then Soprintendenza alle Antichità dell’Etruria Meridionale and supported by, among others, Gustaf VI Adolf, king of Sweden. While most of the actual digging was carried out by locally recruited Italians, students from four Swedish universities served as trenchmasters and assistants. Many of those students went on to contribute to the knowledge of the Etruscans in Sweden by participating in publishing and in exhibitions.

The Etruscan town, whose name remains unknown, extended from c. 630 to c. 550 B.C. over about 80 acres on a plateau surrounded by deep ravines. The modern name, “Acquarossa” (“Red water”), is derived from an adjacent, ferriferous stream. With the help of about 90 trial trenches, dug with a power shovel, 16 areas with sufficiently well preserved remains were located and extended by hand to larger excavation zones, designated A–R. Finds of architectural remains like, for instance, foundation walls, roof-tiles, wells, storage-caves and roads were complemented with, particularly, both coarse and fine pottery, even including imports from East Greek areas. The finds included portable cooking-stands of terracotta, used for the preparation of food, and large amounts of animal bones. An extensive and remarkable find category is formed by the architectural terracottas, painted as well as plastic, that decorated the roofs in bright colours, white on red in particular.


Together with the finds from San Giovenale, those at Acquarossa have contributed to greatly increased knowledge of everyday life in an Etruscan town during the Archaic period. In the 1950s, when the Swedish excavations in Etruria were initiated, such knowledge was mainly based upon the study of tombs, since deep ploughing or later building activity had destroyed the remains of most Etruscan towns.

Acquarossa cascataThe excavations at Acquarossa soon attracted the attention of both the scholarly world and the general public. In addition to the production of preliminary reports, the Swedish excavation team concentrated, even during the field work, on exhibitions of the find material, much of which was spectacular (Rome 1968, Viterbo 1969, Stockholm 1972, Milan 1973, Ancona 1974). The permanent exhibition at the Museo Archeologico Nazionale in Rocca Albornoz in Viterbo from the “Etruscan year” 1986 onwards has constituted a far-reaching resource not too far from the actual site. There are presented – apart from pottery and other minor finds – several reconstructed roofs, with original roof-tiles and decorative terracottas. On the site itself, posters supply information on the excavated zones, with references to the Viterbo museum. The monumental area (Zone F) remains open to the public.

The scholarly catalogue Architettura etrusca nel Viterbese. Ricerche svedesi a San Giovenale e Acquarossa 1956-1986, Roma 1986 (all in Italian) published in connection with the opening of the permanent exhibition contains a thorough presentation of the preliminary results: private architecture, the monumental complex, architectural terracottas, daily life, and the historical context. Ten volumes of the final publication have appeared (in English), devoted to excavation areas and various thematic subjects, and more will appear in the near future. For the many scholarly studies (most of them in English and Italian, with a few contributions in Swedish), see the thematically organized Bibliography of Acquarossa below.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ACQUAROSSA

  1. THE EXCAVATION

I.1  Archaeological exploration, preliminary reports, etc.

Östenberg, C.E., ‘Technology and the arts’, Tryckluft 3, 1968, 311.

Östenberg, C.E., ‘Appunti sugli scavi ad Acquarossa’, La Provincia di Viterbo 1969:1, 23–32.

Östenberg, C.E., ‘Gli scavi dell’Istituto Svedese all’Acquarossa’, Tuscia Archeologica 1, 1971, 4–8.

Östenberg, C.E., ‘Acquarossa – Ferentium: campagna di scavo 1975’, Opuscula Romana 11, 1976, 29–37.

Östenberg, C.E., ‘I cinquant’anni dell’Istituto Svedese di Studi Classici a Roma (1926–1976)’, Strenna dei romanisti 37, 1976, 211f.

Strandberg Olofsson, M., ‘Vad händer nu med Acquarossa?’, Svenska Institutet i Rom. Årskrönika 16, 1979, 6–8.

Vidén, A., ‘Acquarossa – Ferentium: campagna di scavo 1978’, Opuscula Romana 13, 1981, 63–68.

Östenberg, C.E., ‘Acquarossa (Viterbo). Rapporto preliminare. Cenni introduttivi, le necropoli e i periodi preistorici e protostorici’, Notizie degli Scavi ser. 8, 39, 1983 (pr. 1986), 25–96.

Nylander, C., ‘Attività archeologica nel Viterbese dell’Istituto Svedese di Studi Classici a Roma’, in Archeologia nella Tuscia II. Atti degli Incontri di studio organizzati a Viterbo (1984) (Quaderni del Centro di studio per l’archeologia etrusco-italica, 13), eds. A. Emiliozzi Morandi & A.M. Sgubini Moretti, Roma 1986, 105–112.

Wikander, Ch., ‘Acquarossa: campagna di scavo 1991, Opuscula Romana 19, 1993, 91–95.

I.2  Exhibitions

 

Östenberg, C.E., in Arte e civiltà degli Etruschi (Mostra Torino giugno–luglio 1967), Torino 1967, 158.

[Anon.], ‘Gli scavi dell’abitato etrusco di Ferento in una mostra al Museo di Villa Giulia a Roma’, Archeologia 7, 1968, no. 48, 439–447.

Åström, P., ‘Etruscan discoveries from Acqua Rossa exhibited in Rome’, Archaeology 22, 1969, 233f.

Östenberg, C.E., Civiltà etrusca nel Viterbese (Mostra Viterbo 9–30 ottobre 1969), Viterbo 1969.

Gli Etruschi. Nuove ricerche e scoperte. [Catalogo della] Mostra organizzata nel Museo Storico di Stato a Stoccolma, 6 novembre 1972–28 gennaio 1973, eds. G. Colonna & C.E. Östenberg, Viterbo 1972; second edition 1973 (Mostra del Museo Archeologico del Comune di Milano); third edition 1974 (Mostra nella Pinacoteca di Ancona).

Etruskerna. Nyare fynd och forskning. Swedish edition of the preceding, Viterbo 1972.

Rystedt, E., M. Strandberg Olofsson, Ch. Wikander & Ö. Wikander, ‘1. Acquarossa’, in Case e palazzi d’Etruria (Catalogue of the exhibition at Siena 1985), ed. S. Stopponi, Milano 1985, 41–58.

Architettura etrusca nel Viterbese. Ricerche svedesi a San Giovenale e Acquarossa 1956–1986, Viterbo, Museo Archeologico Nazionale – Rocca Albornoz dal 19 settembre 1986, eds. Ö. Wikander, P. Roos & G. Barbieri, Roma 1986.

  1. Berlingò, ‘Acquarossa e San Giovenale’, in Museo Archeologico Nazionale Rocca Albornoz, Viterbo, Milano 1997, 13–21. (12–21 enl. Örjan)

 

 

  1. GENERAL WORKS

Östenberg, C.E., ‘Appunti sugli scavi ad Acquarossa’, La Provincia di Viterbo 1969:1, 23–32.

Östenberg, C.E., ‘Acquarossa’, Enciclopedia dell’arte antica, Suppl., Roma 1970, 7–9.

Östenberg, C.E., ‘Utgrävningarna på Acquarossa’, in E. Wetter, C.E. Östenberg & M. Moretti, Med kungen på Acquarossa. Den arkeologiska utgrävningen av en etruskisk stad, Malmö 1972, 103–158.

Östenberg, C.E., ‘Luni sul Mignone och Acquarossa’, in Forntid för framtid. Festskrift till kung Gustaf Adolf den 11 november 1972, Stockholm 1972, 192–198.

Östenberg, C.E., ‘I problemi dei centri minori dell’Etruria meridionale interna alla luce delle scoperte di San Giovenale e di Acquarossa’, in VIII Convegno Nazionale di Studi Etruschi e Italici. Aspetti e problemi dell’Etruria interna, Orvieto, 27–30 giugno 1972, Firenze 1974, 75–97.

Östenberg, C.E., ‘Villaggio protostorico dissepolto ad Acquarossa’, Tuscia 4, 1974, 19–22.

Östenberg, C.E., Case etrusche di Acquarossa (Monografie della Tuscia), Roma 1975.

Östenberg, C.E., ‘Acquarossa, Italy’, in The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, ed. R. Stillwell, Princeton, N.J., 1976, 7.

Ch. Wikander, ‘De svenska utgrävningarna i Acquarossa (Italien)’, Limhamniana 23, 1981, 63–86.

Strandberg Olofsson, M. & Ch. Wikander, ‘Cenni storici su San Giovenale ed Acquarossa e sul loro ruolo nell’ambito dell’Etruria interna. Acquarossa’, in Architettura etrusca 1986 (section I.2), 130–134.

Rystedt, E., Ch. Scheffer, M. Strandberg Olofsson, Ch. Wikander & Ö. Wikander, Scavi svedesi nell’Etruria Meridionale; The Swedish excavations in southern Etruria; De svenska utgrävningarna i södra Etrurien, Stockholm 1986.

Wikander, Ö., ‘Acquarossa’, Enciclopedia dell’arte antica Suppl. II, vol. 1 (1971–1994), 25–27.

‘Acquarossa’, in J. Mark, C. Classon & G. Labud, Kungen som grävde. Gustaf VI Adolf i Italien, Stockholm 2004, 24–25.

Ö. Wikander, ‘Svenska arkeologers öden och äventyr. Acquarossa 50 år’, Romhorisont 64, 2016, 18–19.

Rystedt, E. & Ö. Wikander, ‘Acquarossa’, Forma Urbis 22:12, 2017, 22–25.

III.  THE SITE

III.1.  Landscape and geology

Wetter, E., ‘Ricerche topografiche nei territori circostanti Acqua Rossa’, Opuscula Romana 7, 1969, 109–137.

Östenberg, C.E., ‘Topografia e storia’, in Gli Etruschi 1972 (section I.2), 15–17. (‘Topografi och utgrävningshistorik’, in Etruskerna 1972, 15–17.)

Wetter, E., ‘Landskapet kring Acquarossa’, in Med kungen på Acquarossa 1972 (section II), 73–102.

Colonna, G., ‘Ricerche sull’Etruria interna volsiniese’, Studi Etruschi 41, 1973, 45–72.

Östenberg, C.E., ‘Cenni introduttivi’, in Östenberg 1983 (section I.1), 29–40.

Judson, S., ‘Geology and geography of the late Iron Age and Etruscan site of Acquarossa (a preliminary report)’, in Östenberg 1983 (section I.1), 97–104.

Rystedt, E., ‘Introduzione topografica e storia degli scavi e delle ricerche. Acquarossa’, in Architettura etrusca 1986 (section 1.2), 30–33.

Rystedt, E., ‘Ricerca topografica intorno ad Acquarossa: relazione preliminare’, Opuscula Romana 18, 1990, 215–219.

III.2  Necropoleis

Rystedt, E., ‘L’età del ferro. Capanne sull’acropoli, Zona K. La necropoli in località Tre Marie’, in Gli Etruschi 1972 (section I.2), 18–23. (‘Järnålder. Hyddor på akropolen, Zone K. Nekropolen Tre Marie’, in Etruskerna 1972, 18–23.)

Colonna, G., A. Morandi & Ch. Scheffer, ‘Le necropoli di Acquarossa’, in Gli etruschi 1972 (section I.2), 58–77. (‘Nekropolerna omkring Acquarossa’, in Etruskerna 1972, 57–76.)

Emiliozzi, A., La collezione Rossi Danielli nel Museo Civico di Viterbo (Musei e collezioni d’Etruria, 1), Roma 1974.

Östenberg, C.E., ‘Le necropoli’, in Östenberg 1983 (section I.1), 41–78.

Roos, P., ‘The tombs of San Cataldo’, in Acquarossa VII 1994 (section IV.4), 207–259.

Rystedt, E., ‘A Roman tomb in the Campo di Pozzi area’, in Acquarossa VII 1994 (section IV.4), 263–270.

III.3  Urbanistics

Persson, C.B., ‘La struttura urbanistica di Acquarossa’, in Gli Etruschi 1972 (section I.2), 54–57. (‘Acquarossa–stadens urbanistiska struktur’, in Etruskerna 1972, 52–55.)

Judson, S. & P. Hemphill, ‘Sizes of settlements in Southern Etruria, 6th–5th centuries B.C.’, Studi Etruschi 49, 1981, 193–202.

Persson, C.B., ‘Urbanistica. Acquarossa’, in Architettura etrusca 1986 (section I.2), 40–45.

Persson, C.B., ‘The field architect’s urbanistic notes’, in Acquarossa VII 1994 (section IV.4), 289–302.

III.4  Architecture, general

Östenberg, C.E., ‘An Etruscan Archaic house-type not described by Vitruvius. Evidence from Luni sul Mignone and other sites’, Opuscula Romana 7, 1969, 89–107.

Vidén, A., ‘Architettura domestica etrusca’, in Gli Etruschi 1972 (section I.2), 24–31. (‘Etruskisk bostadsarkitektur’, in Etruskerna 1972, 24–31.)

Wendt, L., ‘Tecnica edilizia’, in Gli Etruschi 1972 (section I.2), 32–36. (‘Byggnadsteknik’, in Etruskerna 1972, 32–35.)

Malinowski, R., Betonggolv och väggbeklädnadsmaterial i romersk-etruskisk akvedukt i Acquarossa (Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Avd. för byggnadsmaterial, Publ. 76:2), Göteborg 1976.

Vidén, A., ‘Architettura domestica. Piante delle case. Acquarossa’, in Architettura etrusca 1986 (section I.2), 50–56.

Wendt, L., ‘Architettura domestica. Tecnica di costruzione. Acquarossa’, in Architettura etrusca 1986 (section I.2), 58–60 and 73.

Barbieri, G., ‘Le case degli Etruschi: architettura etrusca. Mostra a Viterbo’, Archeologia viva. 5:12, 1986, 15–23.

  1. EXCAVATION ZONES

IV.1  Zone A

Lundgren, M.-B. & L. Wendt, Acquarossa III. Zone A (ActaRom-4°, 38:3), Stockholm 1982.

IV.2  Zone F

Strandberg, M. & Ö. Wikander, ‘Architettura monumentale. Zona F’, in Gli Etruschi 1972 (section I.2), 40–44. (‘Monumental arkitektur. Zon F’, in Etruskerna 1972, 39–43.)

Bergquist. B., ‘Was there a formal dining-room, sacred or civic, on the acropolis of Acquarossa?’, Opuscula Romana 9, 1973, 21–34.

Strandberg Olofsson, M., Acquarossa V. The head antefixes and relief plaques, Part 1. A reconstruction of a terracotta decoration and its architectural setting (ActaRom-4o, 38:5:1), Stockholm 1984.

Strandberg Olofsson, M., ‘L’area monumentale di Acquarossa’, in Architettura etrusca 1986 (section I.2), 81–92.

Strandberg Olofsson, M., ‘On the reconstruction of the monumental area at Acquarossa’, Opuscula Romana 17, 1989, 163–183.

Scheffer. Ch., ‘“Domus Regiae”—a Greek tradition?’, Opuscula Atheniensia 18, 1990, 185–191.

Wikander, Ch. & Ö. Wikander, ‘The early monumental complex at Acquarossa. A preliminary report’, Opuscula Romana 18, 1990, 189–205.

Strandberg Olofsson, M., ‘Some interpretational aspects of the Acquarossa/Tuscania mould-made terracottas and their architectural context’, in Opus mixtum. Essays in ancient art and society (ActaRom-8o, 21), Stockholm 1994, 135–147.

Strandberg Olofsson, M., ‘Pottery from the monumental area at Acquarossa: a preliminary report’, Opuscula Romana 20, 1996, 149–159.

Thornberg, U.-B., Acquarossa. Zone F, the eastern part, unpubl. Lic. thesis, Lund 1996.

Strandberg Olofsson, M., ‘Two Etruscan transport amphorae from Acquarossa’, Opuscula Romana 27, 2002, 123–133.

Strandberg Olofsson, M., ‘Four imported transport amphorae from Acquarossa’, Opuscula Romana 28, 2003 (pr. 2004), 73–83.

Strandberg Olofsson, M., ‘White-on-red from Acquarossa: some large decorated vessels and their chronological implications’, Opuscula Romana 29, 2004 (pr. 2005), 73–89.

Strandberg Olofsson, M., ‘Fragments with horses and wolf’s teeth. Black impasto and its association with periods and buildings in the monumental area at Acquarossa’, Opuscula. Annual of the Swedish Institutes at Athens and Rome 6, 2013, 23–43.

IV.3  Zone K

Rystedt, E., ‘L’età del ferro. Capanne sull’acropoli, Zona K. La necropoli in località Tre Maire’, in Gli Etruschi 1972 (section I.2), 18–23. (‘Järnålder. Hyddor på akropolen, Zone K. Nekropolen Tre Marie’, in Etruskerna 1972, 18–23.)

Östenberg, C.E., ‘L’acropoli. Periodi preistorici e protostorici’, in Östenberg 1983 (section I.1 ), 79–96.

Rystedt, E., ‘Huts vis-à-vis houses: a note on Acquarossa’, in From huts to houses. Transformations of ancient societies. Proceedings of an International seminar organized by the Norwegian and Swedish Institutes in Rome, 21–24 September 1997 (ActaRom-4o, 56; Acta ad archaeologiam et artium historiam pertinentia, 4o,13)), eds. R. Brandt & L. Karlsson, Stockholm 2001, 23–27.

IV.4  Trial trenches

Acquarossa VII. Trial trenches, tombs and surface finds (ActaRom-4o, 37:7), Stockholm 1994.

Wendt, L. & M.-B. Lundgren, ‘Trial trenches and surface finds’, in Acquarossa VII 1994 (preceding), 11–205.

Karlsson, L., ‘Appendix 4. A column base from Acquarossa’, in Wendt & Lundgren, ‘Trial trenches and surface finds’ (preceding), 167–171.

  1. THE FINDS

V.1  Architectural terracottas

Östenberg, C.E., ‘Le terrecotte architettoniche etrusche di Acquarossa’, Colloqui del Sodalizio sec. ser., 2, 1968–1970, 98–109.

Andrén, A., ‘Osservazioni sulle terrecotte architettoniche etrusco-italiche’, Opuscula Romana 8, 1971 (pr. 1974), 1–16 (= Lectiones Boëthianae 1, 1971).

Strandberg, M., ‘Le terrecotte architettoniche della Zona F’, in Gli Etruschi 1972 (section I.2), 45–50. (‘De arkitektoniska terrakottorna. Zon F’, in Etruskerna 1972, 44–48.)

Wikander, Ö., ‘Tegole da tetto etrusche’, in Gli Etruschi 1972 (section I.2), 37–39. (‘Etruskiska taktegel’, in Etruskerna 1972, 36–38.)

Östenberg, C.E., ‘Ritrovamenti sporadici’, in Gli Etruschi 1972 (section I.2), 51–53. (‘Sporadiska fynd’, in Etruskerna 1972, 49–51.)

Wikander, Ö., ‘Etruscan roofing-tiles from Acquarossa. A preliminary report’, Opuscula Romana 8, 1972, 17–28.

Wikander, Ch., ‘Painted architectural terracottas from Acquarossa. A preliminary report’, Opuscula Romana 11, 1976, 53–61.

Wikander, Ch., ‘Appunti sulle terrecotte architettoniche dipinte di Acquarossa’, Bollettino d’Arte 65, 1980, 85–90.

Wikander, Ch., Acquarossa I. The painted architectural terracottas, Part 1. Catalogue and architectural context (ActaRom-4°, 38:1:1), Stockholm 1981.

Rystedt, E., Acquarossa IV. Early Etruscan akroteria from Acquarossa and Poggio Civitate (Murlo) (ActaRom-4o, 38:4), Stockholm 1983.

Wikander, Ö., ‘’Οpaίa keramίς. Skylight-tiles in the ancient world’, Opuscula Romana 14, 1983, 81–99.

Strandberg Olofsson, M., Acquarossa V. The head antefixes and relief plaques, Part 1. A reconstruction of a terracotta decoration and its architectural setting (ActaRom-4o, 38:5:1), Stockholm 1984.

Wikander, Ö., Acquarossa V1. The roof-tiles, Part 1. Catalogue and architectural context (ActaRom-4o, 38:6:1), Stockholm 1986.

Rystedt, E., Ch. Wikander & Ö. Wikander, ‘Tipologia delle terrecotte architettoniche’, in Architettura etrusca 1986 (section I.2), 60–67 and 73–78.

Wikander, Ch. & Ö. Wikander, ‘Ricostruzione completa dei tetti’, in Architettura etrusca 1986 (section I.2 ), 67–72.

Rystedt, E., M. Strandberg Olofsson, Ch. Wikander & Ö. Wikander, ‘Aspetti tecnici della produzione di terrecotte architettoniche’ and ‘Stile e cronologia delle terrecotte architettoniche’, in Architettura etrusca 1986 (section I.2), 93–108.

Wikander, Ch., Acquarossa I. The painted architectural terracottas, Part 2. Typological and decorative analysis (ActaRom-4°, 38:1:2), Stockholm 1988.

Wikander, Ö., Acquarossa VI. The roof-tiles, Part 2. Typology and technical features (ActaRom-4°, 38:6:2), Stockholm 1993.

Strandberg Olofsson, M., ‘Variations in mould-made reliefs. The case of the large “Tuscania” motifs in the light of some fragments from Acquarossa’, in Deliciae fictiles. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Central Italic architectural terracottas at the Swedish Institute in Rome, 10–12 December, 1990 (ActaRom-4°, 50), eds. E. Rystedt, Ch. Wikander & Ö. Wikander, Stockholm 1993, 193–200.

Wikander, Ch., ‘The decorative systems of the Archaic sima’, in Deliciae fictiles 1993 (preceding), 87–91.

Strandberg Olofsson, M., ‘The repertoire of mould-made terracottas at Acquarossa’, in Acquarossa VII 1994 (section IV.4), 271–287.

Rystedt, E., ‘Additional notes on early Etruscan akroteria’, in Murlo and the Etruscans. Art and society in ancient Etruria, eds. R.D. De Puma & J.P. Small, Wisconsin 1994, 77–84.

Wikander, Ö., ‘The Archaic Etruscan sima’, in Murlo and the Etruscans (preceding), 47–63.

Strandberg Olofsson, M., ‘Some interpretational aspects of the Acquarossa/Tuscania mould-made terracottas and their architectural context’, in Opus Mixtum. Essays in ancient art and society (ActaRom-8°, 21), Stockholm 1994, 135–147.

Wikander, Ch., ‘Changed approaches to the study of architectural terracottas: early relief revetment plaques in Central Italy’, in Deliciae Fictiles II. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Archaic architectural terracottas from Italy, held at the Netherlands Institute in Rome, 12–13 June 1996, eds. P.S. Lulof & E.M. Moormann, Amsterdam 1997, 229–235.

Wikander, Ch., ‘From huts to houses: the problem of architectural decoration’, in From huts to houses. Transformations of ancient societies. Proceedings of an International seminar organized by the Norwegian and Swedish Institutes in Rome, 21–24 September 1997 (ActaRom-4o, 56; Acta ad archaeologiam et artium historiam pertinentia, 4o, 13), eds. R. Brandt & L. Karlsson, Stockholm 2001, 269–272.

Rystedt, E., ‘Etruskiska akroterier – en svensk-amerikansk historia’, in Humanist vid Medelhavet. Reflektioner och studier samlade med anledning av Svenska institutets i Rom 75-årsjubileum, Rom, september 2001 (Skrifter utg. av vänföreningarna för de svenska instituten i Athen och Rom, 7), ed. B. Magnusson, Stockholm 2002, 11–16.

Strandberg Olofsson, M., ‘Herakles i Acquarossa’, in Humanist vid Medelhavet (preceding), 108–116.

Wikander, Ch., ‘Tider med terracotta – bekännelser av en positivist’, in Humanist vid Medelhavet (preceding), 117–123.

Strandberg Olofsson, M., ‘Herakles revisited. On the interpretation of the mould-made architectural terracottas from Acquarossa’, in Deliciae Fictiles III. Architectural terracottas in ancient Italy: new discoveries and interpretations. Proceedings of the international conference held at the American Academy in Rome, November 7–8, 2002, eds. I. Edlund-Berry, G. Greco & John Kenfield, Oxford 2006, 122–129.

Strandberg Olofsson, M., ‘Creatures great and small. Animals on Etrusco-Italic architectural terracotta reliefs’, in Across frontiers. Etruscans, Greeks, Phoenicians & Cypriots. Studies in honour of David Ridgway and Francesca R. Serra Ridgway (Accordia specialist studies on the Mediterranean, 6), eds. E. Herring, I. Lemnos, F. Lo Schiavo et al., London 2006, 495–508.

V.2  Pottery and domestic utensils

Scheffer, Ch., ‘Cooking stands and some possibly related objects from Acquarossa. A preliminary report’, Opuscula Romana 11, 1976, 39–52.

Scheffer, Ch., ‘Etruscan firedogs’, Opuscula Romana 13, 1981, 57–62.

Scheffer, Ch., Acquarossa II:1. Cooking and cooking stands in Italy 1400–400 B. C. (ActaRom-4o, 38:2:1), Stockholm 1981.

Scheffer, Ch., Acquarossa II:2. The cooking stands (ActaRom-4°, 38:2:2), Stockholm 1982.

Scheffer, Ch., ‘La vita quotidiana nell’ambiente domestico’, in Architettura etrusca 1986 (section 1.2), 109–128.

Scheffer, Ch., ‘Acquarossa’, in L’alimentazione nel mondo antico. Gli Etruschi (Catalogue of the exhibition at Viterbo), Roma 1987, 75f.

Scheffer, Ch., ‘Forni e fornelli etruschi in età arcaica’, in L’alimentazione nel mondo antico. Gli Etruschi (preceding), 97–105.

Scheffer, Ch., ‘Forni e fornelli etruschi in età arcaica’, in L’Arcano convito. 4000 anni a tavola, Verona, 7–11 settembre 1989, Accademia Italiana della cucina, ed. J. di Schino,Verona 1989, 58–63.

Scheffer, Ch., ‘Kokställ – matlagning på etruskiskt vis’, in Humanist vid Medelhavet. Reflektioner och studier samlade med anledning av Svenska institutets i Rom 75-årsjubileum, Rom, september 2001 (Skrifter utg. av vänföreningarna för de svenska instituten i Athen och Rom, 7), ed. B. Magnusson, Stockholm 2002, 124–128.

See also under IV.2 Zone F.

V.3  Inscriptions

Cristofani, M., ‘Ferentium’, in Corpus Inscriptionum Etruscarum II:1:4, Florentiae 1970, 338f., nos. 5643–5652.

Colonna, G., ‘Rivista di epigrafia etrusca. Ferentium (loc. Acquarossa)’, Studi Etruschi 40, 1972, 409–411.

Wikander, Ch., Ö. Wikander & G. Colonna, ‘An Etruscan inscription from Acquarossa’, Opuscula Romana 16, 1987, 147f.

  1. SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS

Linington, R.E., ‘Den magnetiska undersökningen på Acquarossa’, in Med kungen på Acquarossa 1972 (section II), 159–161.

Gejvall, N.-G., ‘Animal remains from Zone A in Acquarossa’, in Lundgren & Wendt 1982 (section IV.1), 68–70.

Hulthén, B., ‘Ceramic investigation’, in ‘Appendix 1. Chemical analyses of roof-tiles from Acquarossa’, in Wikander 1993 (section V.1), 164–167.

Zampi, M., ‘Appendix 2. X-ray fluorescence analyses of architectural terracottas from Acquarossa’, in Wikander 1993 (preceding), 168–170.

Pennachioni, M., ‘Appendix 1. Nota sui materiali litici da Acquarossa (Vt)’, in Wendt & Lundgren, ‘Trial trenches and surface finds’ (section IV.4), 155.

Tagliacozzo, A., ‘Appendix 2. I resti ossei faunistici di Acquarossa’, in Wendt & Lundgren (preceding), 156–165.

Bondioli, L., R. Macchiarelli & L. Salvadei, ‘Appendix 3. Consistenza numerica e morfologia dei reperti scheletrici umani provenienti dalla necropoli protostorica di Prato Campo, Viterbo’, in Wendt & Lundgren (preceding), 167.